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Position Paper Gas Heat Pumps


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A new air conditioning concept makes headway with AISIN-TOYOTA to provide a practical response to three of the most important needs of our time: environmental care, maximum efficiency, and savings.
The Gas Heat Pump (GHP) represents a revolutionary innovation in air conditioning: heating, cooling and production of domestic hot water for any environment (private homes, offices, hotels, factories), today can rely on the clean energy offered by the use of gas (natural gas or LPG); the outdoor unit compressors are driven by an endothermic engine, which replaces the electrical power supply, with significant and varied advantages: from environmental care to the ability of working under extreme conditions of operation, from energy savings to low operating costs.
This way, it is possible to initiate a virtuous circle in which each element - ecology, savings, performance – participates in boosting the effects of the others, for an overall optimal result.
AISIN GHPs use highly reliable engines, specifically designed by TOYOTA, guarantee of exceptional quality.


1. High seasonal performace: SPF

The GHP is fitted with a new variable-capacity "scroll-type" compressors which are a prerogative of AOSON's technology. They allow lower engine revolution rate in comparison with previous models at the same refrigerant gas flow. This result in higher efficiency across the whole range of capacities.

2. Total energy recovery

The GHP residual energy of exhaust gas engine heat can be recovered to enhance several services, such as building heating, domestic hot water or re-heat coils in air handling units. Running costs can be further reduced by doing so.

3. Use of air as renewable energy

International agreements targets are calculated on the development of renewable energy, higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. GHP units are top rated in the couse of setting new standards. Each one operates by using 75% of air, which is a renewable energy, both cooling and heating mode. Furthermore, performaces are enhanced by recovering exhaust gas and engine heat, which can be considered energy free of charge.

4. Carbon Footprint fall-off

Each GHP unit can save up to 40% COemissions in comparison with a standard heat production unit with the same capacity. in one year the carbon footprint reduction reaches 17 ton. of CO2 , so fas, all the GHP units installed in Europe  achieve an overall 68.000 ton. carbon footprint fall-off.

                              5. building energy efficiency merit

Evolution in buildingdesign is based on primary energy saving and efficiency merit. In most of the applications, it is possible to improve the building energy class by installing the GHP in spite of a standard heat generator. The asset earns marketability while the need of primary energy and the running costs reduce significantly.

                              6. Running costs cutback

Running costs cutback has always been one of the GHP advantages. The air used as renewable energy, while the engine and exhaust gas heat are recovered. Low consumption and single phase supply make contractors save construction costs for transformers and monthly costs high voltage and amperage supplies. the gas engine allows to reduce the needs of electricity in 90% in comparison to an EHP.

                              7. "combination multi" VRF model and twin AWS

The GHP line-up opens to wider range of capacities. The "Combination Multi" model gives the possibility of matching two outdoors units on a single refrigerant circuit up to 50 HP (142 kWfrig). it is not compulsory that the units have the same capacity. This configuration takes also advantage of the backup option: in case one unit fails to operate, the other one keeps providing capacity to the indoor system. Moreover, the installation costs can be cut off by avoiding the need of two separate refrigerant lines.

                              8. modulating capacity in combination with AWS

The GHP E series introducesone of the most significant difference in combination with water distribution systems: the on/off operating mode was overtaken by variable capacity operation mode. The modulating air to water system AWS allows partial load performaces to increase. Moreover, the supply water temperature is no longer affected by the on/off cycles of the outdoor unit. The overall water contenet of the installation drops down and in some case, buffer tank is no longer needed.

                              9. no need of peak integration system

Each GHP is not affected by losing capacity with low outdoor temperatures, as electric heat pumps do. The recoveder heat (engine and exhaust gas) id tranferred to the refrigerant through a dedicated plate heat exchager. The capacity delivered by the outdoor unit does not drop, which means no oversize of the heat pump, and the defrosting cycles are reduced in number and duration. The 2dual temperature" (which is the break even point between the generator capacity and building load) reduces and thus it is possible to avoid the installation of peak integration boilers.

                              10. TOYOTA reliability

since their development, GHP are powered by specifically designed TOYOTA engines. Sound level is reduced by using polymeric dampers between rotating parts and unit frame. It is peculiar of the engine to have low power density (max 25 HP with 2.000 cc capacity) and limited speed range (within 600 and 3.000 rpm). This result in more than 40.000 running hours of expected engine life. Scheduled maintenance foresees engine oil refill, air and oil filter, compressor belts and spurk plugs replacement. it has to be carried out each 10.000 running hours (or 5 years). Engine oil replacement id needed only after 30.000 running hours.




So far, Coeffient Of Performace (COP) and Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) have been used to compare heat pumps performances in heating and cooling mode respectively. In particular, gras driven heat pumps performance was calculated by using the Gas Utilisation Efficiency (GUE). However, since they consider a single measurement point (rated capacity, steady indoor temperature, outdoor temperature and humidity) these parameters are scarcely reliable. The seasonal Performance Factor (SPF) was introduced to take into account realistic operating conditions (partial loads, on-off and defrosting cycles, temperatures variations) during the whole season.
Each country proposed a different calculation method for seasonal performaces. Nevertheless, the use of average climate-model based, statistic algorithms, which take into account a wide range of temperatures with a different impact on the final value, allows a more realisticreproduction of the heat pump operation.

Europe introduced harmonised definitions for seasonal Primary Energy ratio (SPER), Seasonal COP (SCOP) and Seasonal EER (SEER). Standards for test procedures and calculation methods have also been issued.
Since comparison between primary energy related (SPER) and electrical consumpion (SCOP an SEER) figures is needed, conversion ratio were included in the above mentioned standards.
ErP directive, which sets the requirements for eco-friendly designed of energy consuming products, lists products on a seasonal performace basis. The achieved energy class is metioned on a dedicated label. Moreover the directive sets the minimum requirements each appliance has to fulfit to be retailed.

A comparison between heat pumps, based only on declared GUE, COP and EER, may not be enough to understand real performace of each one. In fact, units with the same GUE. COP and EER may significantly differ in terms of SPER, SCOP and SEER. Moreover, not necessarily units with better GUE, COP and EER shows higher performances across the season.


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